Water System Manual
Assemble team to do the project
of government, NGOs and the private sector
a business-like project is usually outside the scope of government services and
is better done by the private sector or an NGO. Even when government is not involved
in the implementation, its support of the project and collaboration with non-governmental
organizations remains critical. Government involvement can provide credibility
and strengthen implementation by offering access to government resources, and
promoting the project through existing public health networks.
implemented by NGOs require government support, donor funding, and motivated,
well-trained staff with good technical back up. Non-local NGOs also need a plan
for eventually turning the project over to local institutions.
private commercial sector often has the capability to provide high quality products,
an efficient distribution system, and marketing through advertising.
private and public sectors aim to involve the private sector from the start in
a commercially viable operation that makes products widely available at affordable
prices. The process aims to ensure success with market research, a marketing strategy
and a promotional campaign and involves the following steps:
forming partnerships between donor, NGO, public and private sector partners
developing consumer-oriented market research
developing a marketing strategy including a business plan, monitoring and evaluation
launching and monitoring a promotional campaign
expanding project to additional groups and areas
involvement focuses on complementing and expanding the reach of the commercial
sector during the market development phase and concentrates later on the poorest
populations who are unable to procure products through the private sector.
Consider a range
of possible organizations for a range of roles:
Product registration and certification: Roles for the Ministry of Health
are to register and certify the products, give their seal of approval, provide
existing data, collect epidemiological information, and assist with promotion
of the project. Include representatives from Ministry of Health water/environmental
departments and from diarrheal disease control staff.
Data on water coverage: A key role for the government ministries responsible
for water is to provide information on populations, their water sources, and quality
of water sources. Depending on the division of responsibilities in the government,
they may also have a role in certifying products and monitoring water quality.
Possible donors include USAID, World Bank, non-governmental organizations,
foundations, bilateral and multilateral donors, Rotary Club or other service organizations,
and the private sector. Consider trying a sponsorship program with a private company
in which the company buys "advertising," for example, paying to put
logo on water vessel. Local government/municipalities may share some costs and
Importation of supplies: Organizations with tax-free status, such as embassies,
donor and UN agencies, can help save money through customs duty waivers if supplies
need to be imported. Rotary and Lions Clubs may be able to advise about import
Implementation: Implementers' roles include production, behavior change,
promotion, education, sales, and distribution. Possible implementers include non-governmental
organizations such as Population Services International (PSI) and CARE, private
business (such as bottle manufacturers), municipalities, and workers at public
health clinics. Organizations with experience with Safe Water System projects
include PAHO (in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador), PSI (in Bolivia, Zambia, Madagascar),
and CARE (in Kenya, Madagascar).
Distribution: Potential outlets for distribution of products may include
health facilities, hospitals, shops, supermarkets, church groups, schools, cooperatives,
community groups and local companies. Government, non-government or commercial
organizations that distribute medical supplies may assist with distribution. (See
Storage: Local companies, NGOs, and government offices may be able to provide
secure storage space for supplies or space for disinfectant production.
Training: Suitable trainers may be found in the Ministry of Health, universities,
development agencies, or non-government organizations.
Behavior change: An NGO that specializes in behavior change through social
marketing may be available to design a strategy and materials for promotion and
education. It may also provide workers to carry out particular tasks such as developing
a brand name and logo, designing promotional posters and other materials, and
organizing a kick-off event.
are another potential source for theoretical and practical information about behavior
agencies may be employed to do marketing research with the implementing agency
and help design promotional campaigns and materials. Some may donate services
or discount their rates for a public service project.
Promotion: Health facilities and workers can promote use of Safe Water
System products. Other organizations, such as schools, community groups, and drama
groups, can be involved in education and promotion. Local media may give space
to promotional and educational messages. Advertising agencies are expert in promoting
Educational materials: Behavior change expertise,
health education expertise and facilities for producing educational and promotional
materials may be available from the Ministry of Health, educational institutions,
non-governmental organizations, advertising agencies, or private business.
Evaluation: Social scientists from universities and from government can
help to design community, participatory, or operational research on aspects of
implementation. Help in designing evaluation and monitoring or help collecting
data may be available from local universities, medical schools, NGOs, and local
health departments. International agencies or universities may help with external
coordination with various organizations is more time-consuming than working alone,
the advantages of this approach include:
potential to reach different groups in the community through different channels
to diverse skills and resources
greater likelihood of sustainability. The chances of sustainability increase if
a project has support from a broad range of organizations and is integrated into
existing local structures. Existing community structures and committees are more
likely to survive in the long run than those established specifically for a project.
staffing needs for the project. Review activities planned. Decide what type of
staff will be required for each activity and estimate how much time will be needed.
Research will require a trained researcher to assist with design, planning
and analysis, and field workers to collect data.
Behavior change, education and promotion will require special materials, an
artist to develop posters, field workers to pretest messages and materials, trainers
for field workers and door-to-door promoters, someone to work with community drama
Production will require a technician to set up production, train production
staff, and supervise quality. It will also require production staff to run and
maintain equipment, bottle the disinfectant, and keep records of production.
Distribution and sale will require staff to provide information, demonstrate
water treatment, and record sales activities.
Management and administration will require staff for tasks such as stock-keeping,
financial control, procurement of supplies, training, supervision, analysis of
monitoring data and writing reports.
a core group of organizations to work on the project. Then establish a project
management committee composed of representatives of the organizations. When several
organizations are involved in implementing a project, each with different roles,
it is important to have a management committee to oversee and coordinate.
for example, the team included:
Catholic Relief Services
Ministry of Mines
Mayor of Antananarivo