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Home > India > Rajasthan



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 • Coordinates
 • 26.90� N 75.80� E
Largest city Jaipur
Largest urban area {{{UA}}}
Population (2001)
 • Density
56,473,122 (8th)
 • 165/km�
 • Districts
342,236 km� (1st)
 • 32
Time zone IST (UTC +5:30)
 • Governor
 • Chief Minister
 • Legislature (seats)
 • Pratibha Patil
 • Vasundhara Raje Scindia
 • Unicameral (200)
Official language(s) Hindi, Rajasthani
Abbreviation (ISO) IN-RJ

Seal of Rajasthan


Rajasthan (राजस्थान)
is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. It borders Pakistan to the west, Gujarat to the southwest, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast and Punjab to the north. Rajasthan covers an area of 342,239 km� (132,139 mi�;).

The state capital is Jaipur. Geographical features include the Thar Desert in western Rajasthan and the termination of the Ghaggar River. One of the world's oldest mountain ranges, the Aravalli Range, cradles the only hill station of Rajasthan, Mount Abu, and its world famous Dilwara Temples. Eastern Rajasthan has two national tiger reserves, Ranthambore and Sariska, as well as Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, famous for its bird life.




The main geographic feature of Rajasthan is the Aravalli Range, which runs through the state from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to another end. Mount Abu is at the southwestern end of the range, although a series of broken ridges continues into Haryana in the direction of Delhi. About three-fifths of Rajasthan lies northwest of the Aravallis, leaving two-fifths on the east and south.

The northwestern portion of Rajasthan is generally sandy and dry, and most of the region is covered by the Thar Desert, which extends into adjoining portions of Pakistan. The Aravalli Ranges intercept the moisture-giving southwest monsoon winds off the Arabian Sea, leaving the northwestern region in a rain shadow. The Thar Desert is thinly populated, and the town of Bikaner is the largest city in the desert. The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie in a band around the Thar Desert, between the desert and the Aravallis. This region receives less than 750 mm of rain in an average year, and summer temperatures can exceed 45� C in the summer months, and drop below freezing in the winter. The Godwar, Marwar, and Shekhawati regions lie in the thorn scrub forest zone, along with the city of Jodhpur. The Luni River and its tributaries are the major river system of Godwar and Marwar Regions, draining the western slopes of the Aravallis and emptying southwest into the great Rann of Kutch wetland in neighboring Gujarat. The Ghaggar River, which originates in Haryana, is an intermittent stream that disappears into the sands of the Thar Desert in the northern corner of the state.

The Aravalli Range and the lands to the east and southeast of the range are generally more fertile and better watered. This region is home to the Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical dry broadleaf forests that include teak, Acacia, and other trees. The hilly Vagad region lies in southernmost Rajasthan, on the border with Gujarat. With the exception of Mount Abu, Vagad is the wettest region in Rajasthan, and the most heavily forested. North of Vagad lies the Mewar region, home to the cities of Udaipur and Chittaurgarh. The Hadoti region lies to the southeast, on the border with Madhya Pradesh. North of Hadoti and Mewar is the Dhundhar region, home to the state capital of Jaipur. Mewat, the easternmost region of Rajasthan, borders Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Eastern and southeastern Rajasthan is drained by the Banas and Chambal rivers, tributaries of the Ganges.


Rajasthan has a rich and colorful history making it one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Shown here is an ancient ruin in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.

Rajasthan has a rich and colorful history making it one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Shown here is an ancient ruin in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.

Rajasthan was earlier called Rajputana (state of Rajputs) after the ruling class of Rajputs. Rajput which literally means 'son of rulers'. Rajput clans rose to prominence in the 6th century, establishing kingdoms in Rajasthan and across northern India. The Rajputs resisted Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput states became tributaries to the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire during those empires' peak of expansion. As these empires weakened, the Rajputs reasserted their independence. With the decline of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century, Rajputana become more and more independant.The Rajput kings concluded treaties with the British in the early 19th century, accepting British sovereignty. Ajmer became a province of British India, while the autonomous Rajput states and a few non-Rajput states (Tonk, Bharatpur, and Dholpur) were organized into the Rajputana Agency.

Rajasthan's independent kingdoms created a rich architectural and cultural heritage, seen today in its numerous forts, palaces and havelis, which are complemented by exceptional examples of Muslim and Jain architecture.

The Rajputs' tradition of independence preserved Rajasthan's culture and society, but many argue that it also kept the state illiterate, backward and old fashioned, leaving it less advanced in industrialisation, education, female rights, and equality.


List of Prominent Historical Icon of Rajasthan

  • Bappa Rawal
  • Gora - Badal
  • Samrat Prithvi Raj Chauhan of Ajmer
  • Maha Rana Sangram Singh alias Rana Sangha
  • Maha Rana Pratap Singh
  • Veer Durga Dass Rathore
  • Amar Singh Rathore
  • Rani Padmini
  • Rao Shekhaji



Rajasthan's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $33 billion in current prices.


Rajasthan'economy is primarily agricultural and pastoral. Wheat and barley are cultivated in large areas, as are pulses,sugarcane,and oilseeds.Cotton and tobacco are cash crops. Rajasthan is amomg the largest producer of edible oils in India and the second largest producer of oilseeds.Rajasthan is also the biggest wool-producing state in India. There are mainly two crop seasons. The main source of irrigation is wells and tanks. The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates north western Rajasthan.


Textiles - Rajasthan state is the second largest producer of polyster fibre in India.Bhilwara district produces more cloth than Bhiwandi in Maharashtra.

Minerals - Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India.The state is the largest producer of marbles and sandstone, the second largest of cement.It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar and copper mines at Khetri and Dariba.The white marble is mined at Makrana near Jodhpur.

It is the mineral capital of India and produces:


Endowed with natural beauty and a great history ,tourism is going great guns in Rajasthan.The palaces of Jaipur, lakes of Udaipur and desert forts of Jaisalmer are among the most preferred destination of many a tourist ,Indian or foreign.Tourism accounts for eight percent of the state's domestic product.Many old and neglected palaces and forts have been converted into heritage hotels.Tourism has increased employment in hospitality sector.


A spin-off of tourism has been the growth of the handicrafts industry.





Government and politics




List of Scheduled castes in Rajasthan





Main article: Districts of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has 32 districts: Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara, Baran, Barmer, Bhilwara, Bikaner, Bharatpur, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Churu, Dausa, Dholpur, Dungarpur, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Karauli, Kota, Nagaur, Pali, Rajsamand, Sawai Madhopur, Sikar, Sirohi, Tonk, and Udaipur.


Seven divisions of the districts.

Seven divisions of the districts.

These districts are grouped into seven divisions:

  • Ajmer Division: Ajmer, Bhilwara, Nagaur, Tonk.
  • Bharatpur Division: Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karuali, Swai Madhopur.
  • Bikaner Division: Bikaner, Churu, Sri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh.
  • Jaipur Division: Jaipur, Alwar, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Dausa.
  • Jodhpur Division: Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi.
  • Kota Division: Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar, Kota.
  • Udaipur Division: Banswara, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur, Udaipur, Rajsamand.


Important cities and towns



See also




  • Population: 56.47 million (2001 Census, estimated at more than 58 million now)
  • Cities and Towns: 222
  • Major cities: Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Kota, Ajmer, Bikaner, Bhilwara, Alwar, Sri Ganganagar
  • Roads: 61,520 km. ( 2,846 km National Highway)
  • National highways crossing Rajasthan: Delhi-Ahmedabad, Agra-Bikaner, Jaipur-Bhopal and Bhatinda-Kandla
  • Climate: Generally dry with monsoon during July-August
  • Districts: 32
  • Languages: English and Hindi commonly used, as well as indigenous Rajasthani languages
  • Literacy: 61.03 %



  • Gahlot, Sukhvirsingh. 1992. RAJASTHAN: Historical & Cultural. J. S. Gahlot Research Institute, Jodhpur.
  • Somani, Ram Vallabh. 1993. History of Rajasthan. Jain Pustak Mandir, Jaipur.
  • Tod, James & Crooke, William. 1829. Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajput States of India. 3 Vols. Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi. 1990. ISBN 81-85395-68-3 (set of 3 vols.)

Mathur, P.C., 1995. Social and Economic Dynamics of Rajasthan Politics ( Jaipur, Aaalekh)



External links

  State of Rajasthan
Rajasthan Topics
Capital Jaipur
Divisions Ajmer | Bharatpur | Bikaner | Jaipur | Jodhpur | Kota | Udaipur
Districts Ajmer | Alwar | Banswara | Baran | Barmer | Bhilwara | Bikaner | Bharatpur | Bundi | Chittorgarh | Churu | Dausa | Dholpur | Dungarpur | Ganganagar | Hanumangarh | Jaipur | Jaisalmer | Jalore | Jhalawar | Jhunjhunu | Jodhpur | Karauli | Kota | Nagaur | Pali | Rajsamand | Sawai Madhopur | Sikar | Sirohi | Tonk | Udaipur
Major cities Alwar BhilwaraBikanerJaipur JaisalmerJodhpur Udaipur


Indian States and Union Territories
States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal PradeshAssamBihar ChhattisgarhGoaGujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand KarnatakaKerala Madhya Pradesh MaharashtraManipur MeghalayaMizoram NagalandOrissa PunjabRajasthanSikkim Tamil NaduTripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal
Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Pondicherry






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