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Rajmata Jijau Mother-Child Health & Nutrition Mission
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Rajasthan, India
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Think of the poorest you have ever seen and ask if your next act will be of any use to him.
Mahatma Gandhi





Plan: Health Education in Maharashtra
An integrated approach to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity due to diarrhoea and dehydration; Maharashtra, India 2005 – 2010
 

  • In India, every 8 minutes one woman dies due to pregnancy related causes which are preventable. With the death of a mother her children are much more likely to die before age

  • In India, one child dies every 17 seconds due to easily preventable causes. On the scale of ‘best place to be a mother’, India ranks 75 out of 79 developing countries

  • India accounts for 25% of global child deaths

  • Kerala has the lowest Maternal Mortality in the country and has 100% Auxiliary Nurse Midwives in place.

  • In India, only 10% of the most wealthy women deliver without trained health workers, compared to around an estimated 80% of the poorest women

Sources: Sample Registration Survey (SRS) 2004-2006, State of the World's Mother 2011, WRA-India leaflet 2011 - pdf


 

Is Economic Growth Associated with Reduction in Child Undernutrition in India?
published by PLoS Medicine - 8 March, 2011

No Link Found Between Economic Growth and Child Undernutrition Rates in India
ScienceDaily (Mar. 8, 2011) — Economic growth in India has no automatic connection to reducing undernutrition in Indian children and so further reductions in the prevalence of childhood undernutrition are likely to depend on direct investments in health and health-related programs. These are the conclusions of a large study by researchers at the Schools of Public Health at University of Michigan and Harvard University.
Download pdf


 

25% of all Global Maternal Deaths are in India.
WHO defines maternal mortality as the death of a woman during pregnancy or in the first 42 days after the birth of the child due to causes directly or indirectly linked with pregnancy.

Globally, every year over 500,000 women die of pregnancy related causes and 99 percent of these occur in developing countries.
  • The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in India is 254 per 100,000 live births according to Sample Registration System (SRS) Report for 2004-2006. This is a decline from the earlier ratio of 301 during 2001-2003.
     
  • In the region, the MMR in China stands at 45, Sri Lanka at 58, Bangladesh at 570, Nepal at 830 and Pakistan at 320 in 2006.
     
  • Wide disparities exist across states in India. The MMR ranges from 95 in Kerala to 480 in Assam.
     
  • MMR has a direct impact on infant mortality Babies whose mothers die during the first 6 weeks of their lives are far more likely to die in the first two years of life than babies whose mothers survive.
     
  • Only 47 per cent of women likely in India have an institutional delivery and 53 percent had their births assisted by a skilled birth attendant. As many as 49 percent of pregnant women still do not have three antenatal visits during pregnancy. Only 46.6 percent of mothers receive iron and folic acid for at least 100 days during pregnancy.

Key Issues

  • About half of the total maternal deaths occur because of hemorrhage and sepsis. A large number of deaths are preventable through safe deliveries and adequate maternal care.
     
  • More than half of all married women are anaemic and one-third of them are malnourished

Maternal Mortality in India: Using International and Constitutional Law to PromoteMaternal Mortality in India: Using International and Constitutional Law to Promote Accountability and Change
The Center for Reproductive Rights - 2008 pdf

The Government of India has a legal obligation to ensure that women do not die or suffer complications as a result of preventable pregnancy-related causes. The staggering scale and continuing occurrence of maternal deaths and morbidity in India reveals the Government’s failure to protect women’s rights and comply with international law.

As the nation leading the world with respect to the number of maternal deaths, the Indian government has an immediate obligation to take meaningful steps to dramatically reduce maternal mortality by fully implementing national policies on maternal health and holding those responsible for the failure of its policies accountable.

This report is intended to serve as a resource for those interested in using international and constitutional legal norms and mechanisms to establish government accountability for maternal deaths and pregnancy-related morbidity through public interest litigation and human rights advocacy.


India Statistics - Women - UNICEF
Estimates of Maternal Mortality Ratios in India and its States - A Pilot Study pdf
Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research - July 2003


 

Malnourishment in India

More than 5,000 Indian children below five years die every day due to malnourishment or lack of basic micronutrients like Vitamin A, iron, iodine, zinc or folic acid.

Overall, India hosts 57 million - or more than a third - of the world's 146 million undernourished children. 45.9 per cent of India's under-three kids are underweight, 39 per cent are stunted, 20 per cent severely malnourished, 80 per cent anaemic while infant mortality hovers at 67 per 1,000. 440 million people languish at the bottom of the economic pyramid in India and about 500,000 children are born deformed each year due to vitamin/mineral deficiencies.

National Family Health Survey, India  2005-2006 - NFHS-3

"Malnourishment severely retards a child's cognitive, physical and emotional growth and has a cascading effect on his/her productivity in adult years."  -- Dr Suresh Kasana, New Delhi

"India should be worried." Experts reiterate that child malnutrition is not only responsible for 22 per cent of India's disease burden - and for 50 per cent of the 2.3 million child deaths in India -- but is also a serious economic hazard. Neeta Lal reports.


 

Why is breastfeeding so important?Why Is Breastfeeding So Important?
Why Is Breastfeeding So Important?Download .pdf 17.5 mb.

Breastfeeding provides the perfect nutrition for your baby and provides many health benefits for both mother and baby.
- Initiating breast feeding within the first hour and exclusive breastfeeding can prevent under two mortality.
- Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding
- Colostrum - Gift of a protective cover from the mother
- We believe all mothers know how to feed their child. But do they?
- Myths and facts about breast milk
- Complimentary feeding
- Role of media in promoting proper young child feeding: Media should focus on and promote measures that are required to be taken urgently to ensure the survival of children


 

Evidence Based Communication for Health Promotion: Indian Lessons of Last Decade
Indian Journal of Public Health - 30 January 2012

"Evidence-based approaches used in risk communication should be adopted as core principles by all health providers, experts, health authorities, policy makers, and politicians when communicating information about program interventions. These approaches include engagement with and listening to stakeholders, and being transparent about decision making, and honest and open about uncertainty and risks. Decision and policy makers cannot assume what the public wants without undertaking social science and decision science research. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has shown that monitoring of public concerns needs to be continuous and responsive, and hand in hand with the monitoring of technical strategies."


 

India: towards universal health coverage
The Lancet - published 11 January, 2011

India is a vast, complex country, and despite recent economic development, its health-care system is inadequate to deal with the country's main health challenges: infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and poor maternal and child health. A new Lancet Series engages with the construct of Health for All in India by investigating the Indian health system, and to offer solutions for evidence-based and affordable health care for all Indian citizens by 2020.

Download pdf


 



Universal health care in India: the time is right
Vikram Patel, A K Shiva Kumar, Vinod K Paul, Krishna D Rao, K Srinath Reddy
Published Online: 11 January 2011

India has supported the ideal of health for all since it become an independent nation more than 60 years ago. The Bhore Committee report 1 in 1946 recommended a national health system for delivery of comprehensive preventive and curative allopathic services through a rural-focused multilevel public system, financed by the government, through which all citizens would receive care irrespective of their ability to pay. However, a newly independent India faced monumental challenges in 1947.


 

Disparities in the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhoea in India
Nisha Malhotra and Nicholas Choy
August 2010 download pdf19 pages - 246 kb


Despite the severe impact of diarrhoea on children's health and mortality in India, recent surveys show that only half of all children suffering from diarrhoea receive treatment or medical advice, and more than two-thirds receive no Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). An understanding of the socio-demographic determinants for appropriate treatment of the disease will be critical for improving these figures. This analysis is based on the most recent National Family Health Survey (NFHS3), which shows that children are more likely to receive ORT if they are treated in a public health facility, rather than in a private health facility. Households with mothers belonging to the youngest age group, lowest educational attainment, and poorest wealth index are the least likely groups to properly treat their children suffering from diarrhoea. A significant gender bias also exists as parents show a preferential treatment of male children and delay seeking treatment for their female children. The low usage of ORT can also be attributed to a combination of low health knowledge among the aforementioned groups, and low use of public health facilities.



 

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  • Emblem of India

     

    Economic Crises Affect Children. Interview with Jed Friedman. WorldBank

     

     

     


    India Country Statistics from UNICEF

    India: Census 2011: Provisional Population Totals- Review of National Immunization Coverage in pdf format pdf 4.3 mb
    Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India - Ministry of Home Affairs - 31st March 2011

    Census India - 2001
    Rural - Urban distribution of population - India and States / Union Territories  

    India Statistics - UNICEF

    Review of National Immunization Coverage 1980-2002, India WHO/UNICEF - October, 2003
    13 pages - Review of National Immunization Coverage in pdf format pdf 125 kb 

    Demographics and Health Surveys [DHS] - India Publications
    India Country Statistics - Indicators �1992/93  &  1998/99 

    National Family Health Survey, India 1998-1999 (NFHS-2) 

    Online Maps by MapMyIndia

    Knowledge Management policy for Health - Service, Education and Research - Draft
    Department of Health Research - 9 pages - Review of National Immunization Coverage in pdf formatpdf 90 kb 

    National Health Research Policy - 16 pages - Review of National Immunization Coverage in pdf formatpdf 90 kb 
    Department of Health Research Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India - New Delhi, February 2011


     

    Indian Online Women and Moms: Research Review by TrendsSpotting
     
    "/>

     

    Facts and Figures

    UNDP’s Assessment Report -- What will it take to achieve the MDGs

     

    India’s progress towards the healthcare MDGs
    by Meg Towle | 3.14.2011


    India’s progress towards the healthcare MDGs



     


    Achieving MDGs in India

    Elimination of inequalities and harnessing new opportunities for implementation of policies and programmes
    INDIA’S HEARTLAND STATES NEED URGENT ACTION TO FAST TRACK PROGRESS

     

    MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
    INDIA COUNTRY REPORT 2009
    - download pdf
    Mid-Term Statistical Appraisal
    Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India

     

    India MDG Report 2009

    Fast facts from India’s 2009 MDG Report:

    • The absolute number of poor in the country has declined from about 320 million (36 percent of total population) in 1993-94 to about 301 million (27.6 percent of total population) in 2004-05. With this rate of decline, the country is expected to have a burden of about 279 million of people (22.1 percent) living below the poverty line in the year 2015.
       
    • All-India trend of the proportion of underweight (severe and moderate) children below three years of age shows India is going slow in eliminating the effect of malnourishment. The estimate of the proportion has declined only marginally during 1998-99 to 2005-06, from about 47 to about 46 percent and at this rate of decline is expected to come down to about 40 percent only by 2015.
       
    • With 1.9 million tuberculosis cases estimated in 2008 India has one fifth of the world’s total. Globally India also made the most notable progress in providing treatment across the country’s entire population – in 2008 over 1.5 million patients were enrolled for treatment.
       
    • During the past decade India’s forest cover has increased by 728 sq. km, access to improved water sources is up from 68.2 percent in 1992-93 to 84.4% in 2007-08 – in urban areas it has gone up to 95%. According to India’s MDG Report “India, one of the most densely populated countries in the world, has the lowest sanitation coverage”. Sanitation remains a major challenge and half the population does not have access to toilets – in rural areas this is as high as 66%.
       
    • Going at the rate by which youth literacy increased between 1991 and 2001- from 61.9 to 76.4 percent, India is expected to have youth literacy of 82.1 by 2007 and 100 percent by the end of 2012.
       
    • Gender parity in primary and secondary education is likely to be achieved though not in tertiary education.  However, share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector can at best be expected to reach a level of about 24 percent by 2015, far short of a parity situation.
     

    Millennium Development Goals
    India Country Report 2007


    Contents
    List of Tables
    List of Charts and Maps
    Acronyms
    Foreword
    Preface
    Introduction

    Chapters
    Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
    Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
    Goal 3: Promote gender equality & empower women
    Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
    Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, & other diseases
    Goal 7: Ensure environment sustainability
    Goal 8: Develop a global partnership of development

    Annexure
    I : India's MDG-framework of indicators 7 their metadata
    II : MDG Indicators Database of India- Official National Data & UN Data
    III : References

    India - Country Profile: Human Development Indicators

    Human Development Report 2011 - download report
    Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All
    Explanatory note on 2011 HDR composite indices
    India - HDI values and rank changes in the 2011 Human Development Report


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    India - Facts and Figures

     

    Background: India is the largest country in South Asia but only the 7th largest in the world, with a surface area of 3.2 million sq km. The former British colony, however, the 2nd highest population on earth, with some 1.19 billion people, a figure only beaten only by China's population of 1.34 billion. The country has an extensive coastline, with the western coast facing onto the Arabian Sea, the southern facing onto the Indian Ocean, an the eastern facing the Bay of Bengal. India has land borders with Pakistan (2,912km) to the north west, China (3,380km), Nepal (1,690km) and Bhutan (605km) to the north, Bangladesh (4,053km) and Burma (1,463km) to the east.


    BORDERS: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

    POPULATION: 1,189,172,906

    GDP PER CAPITA: $2,625.09 per capita

    CAPITAL WITH POPULATION: New Delhi - 294,149

    LARGEST CITY WITH POPULATION: Mumbai - 11,914,398

    ALTERNATIVE NAMES: India, Republic of India


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    Demographics of India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000

    Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000

    Map showing the population density of each district in India

    Map showing the population density of each district in India

    Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India

    Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India

    Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India
    alt

    Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India

     

    Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)

    alt

    Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)[1]

    India has a population of approximately 1.136 billion people (estimate for September 1, 2007 based on interpolating on estimates by Census Bureau of India for March 1 of 2007 and 2008), comprising approximately one-sixth of the world's population. This population is remarkably diverse; it has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as a language isolate (the Nihali language[2] spoken in parts of Maharashtra). Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, cultural and genetic diversity of India.[3] These factors render the task of comprehensively detailing the Demographics of India prohibitive; some important indices are available, nevertheless.

    Contents

     

    Salient features

    Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports over 16% of the world's population. 31.8% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age.[4] As per the 2001 census, 72.22% of the people live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more than 2000 towns and cities.[citation needed][5]

    Although 80.5% of the people are Hindus,[6] India is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world 13.4% after Indonesia and Pakistan. India also contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians, Sikhs and Jains. Other religious groups include Christians (2.3%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jews and Bah�'�s.[7]

     

    Census

    The most recent census of India was performed in 2001 for enumeration as of March 1 of that year.[8] It was the 14th census in an unbroken series, and the 6th after independence in 1947 (with the exception that census could not be held for Assam in the 1981 and Jammu & Kashmir in 1991). Eight censuses were performed under the British Raj, the first one was carried out throughout the 1860s and completed in 1872. After this, there has been 'one census every decade starting 1881'.

    The 2001 census was conducted in two phases, the first being Housenumbering and Houselisting operations, carried out in May 2000, and the second being population enumeration, carried out from February 9 to 28, 2001. The reference time for the census is 1 March, 2001. The homeless population was enumerated on 28 February. A revisional round was undertaken 1 to 5 March 2001 to account for mutations between the time of visit in February and 1 March.[citation needed]

    The total population calculated for 1 March 2001 was 1,027,015,247, making the 2001 census the first to count more than a billion Indians.[9] The population had risen by 21.34% compared to the 1991 total. The female population had increased by 0.3 percentage points to 48.4%.[10]

    See list of States of India by urban population. Maharashtra has the largest urban agglomeration while Delhi is the most urbanised market at over 93% urbanization.

    There are several nomadic communities found in all over India. Their population is not estimated in India, but it is supposed that they make up 7% of total population of India[citation needed].

     

    Key data

    Total Population: 1,129.9 million(July 1, 2007 est. CIA)[11] 1,028.7 million(2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124 thousand in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

    Rural Population: 72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

    Table 1: Population History

    Year Total Population
    1960 443,000,000
    1970 553,000,000
    1980 684,000,000
    1990 838,141,000
    2000 1,004,591,054
    2005 1,095,054,669
    2007 1,129,866,154



    Table 2: Population Projections (in millions)

    Year Under 15 15-64 65+ Total
    2000 361 604 45 1010
    2005 368 673 51 1093
    2010 370 747 58 1175
    2015 372 819 65 1256
    2020 373 882 76 1331

    Source: Based on P.N. Mari Bhat, "Indian Demographic Scenarion 2025", Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, Discussion Paper No. 27/2001.

    Urban Population: Age structure:
    0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
    15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
    65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.) The average age of Indians is 24.8 years.

    Population growth rate: 1.38% (2007 est.)

    Birth rate: 22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

    Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

    Literacy rate: 79,9% (2007 est.)[12]

    Percent of the population under the poverty line: 22% (2006 est.)

    Unemployment Rate: 7.8%

    Net migration rate: − -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.098 male(s)/female
    15–64 years: 1.061 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.064 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

    Infant mortality rate: total: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.) female: 29.23 deaths/1,000 live births male: 39.42 deaths/1,000 live births

    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 68.59 years
    male: 66.28 years
    female: 71.17 years (2007 est.)
     

    Total fertility rate: 2.81 children born/woman (2007 est.) The TFR (Total number of children born per women ) according to Religion in 2001 was : Hindus - 2.27, Muslims - 3.06, Sikhs - 1.86, Christians - 2.06, Buddhists - 2.29, Jains - 1.50 , Animists and Others - 2.99, Tribals - 3.16, Scheduled Castes - 2.89.[13]
     

    Nationality:
    noun: Indian(s)
    adjective: Indian

    Religions: Hindu 82.5%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.31%, Buddhists 0.8%, Sikh 1.93%, Jains 0.41%, others or not stated 0.76% (2001 Census)[citation needed]

    Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

    Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these by far is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bengali with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as "official languages". In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[14][15]

    Religious breakdown

    Main article: Religion in India

    Censuses were conducted in parts of India in the ancient times with examples such as Kautilya's Arthashastra which describes the collection of population statistics for taxation in 4th century B.C.. The British census in 1865-1872 was the first conducted in modern times in India.

    The 2001 census figures released by the India Census Commission give a breakdown by various parameters including religion.

    1. All figures in %.
    2. Gender Ratio*: no of females/1000 males
    3. Others including Bah�'�s, Jews, and Parsis.
    4. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are grouped under Others after 1926 (1931 census onwards)
    Table 2: Census information for 2001[α][β]
    Composition   Hindus[16]   Muslims[17]   Christians[18]   Sikhs[19]   Buddhist[20]   Jains[21]   Others[22]  
     % total of population 2005 80.5 13.4 2.3 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.6
    10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[23][β] 20.3 29.5 22.6 18.2 24.5 26 103.1
    Sex ratio* (avg. 944) 935 940 1009 895 955 940 100
    Literacy rate (avg. 79.9) 75.5 60.0 90.3 70.4 73.0 95.0 50.0
    Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
    Rural sex ratio[23] 944 953 1001 895 958 937 995
    Urban sex ratio[23] 922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
    Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976

    Source: The First Report on Religion: Census of India 2001[24]

         α.   ^  The data excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur

         β.   ^  The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir

    It should also be noted that about 40% of the Hindus speak Hindi while the rest speak Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Gujarati,Kannada and other languages. Almost 70% of the Muslims speak Urdu while the rest speak Kashmiri, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Gujarati and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil while the rest speak a variety of languages.

     

    Ethnic groups

    Unlike the USA, UK, and Australian Censuses, the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India,[25] but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India).

    It should be noted that Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman are racial and linguistic terms and denote members of these racial groups and speakers of their linguistic groups.

     

    See also

     

    References

    1. ^ http://www.unescap.org/esid/psis/population/database/poplaws/law_india/indiaappend3.htm
    2. ^ SIL International. Ethnologue report for Language Isolate. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
    3. ^ India, a Country Study United States Library of Congress, Note on Ethnic groups
    4. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html#People
    5. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/results/rudist.html
    6. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html#People
    7. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/
    8. ^ http://www.censusindia.net
    9. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/results/resultsmain.html
    10. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/results/
    11. ^ CIA World Factbook - India
    12. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/results/provindia3.html
    13. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/results/fseries_tables/data_highlights_F9_F10.pdf
    14. ^ Mother Tongues of India According to the 1961 Census
    15. ^ Rupert Goodwins. Smashing India's language barriers. ZDNet UK.
    16. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Hindus (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    17. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Muslims (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    18. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Christians (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    19. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Sikhs (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    20. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Buddhists (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    21. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Jains (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    22. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions: Other religions (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    23. ^ a b c A snapshot of population size, distribution, growth and socio economic characteristics of religious communities from Census 2001 (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION pp1–9. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
    24. ^ Tables: Profiles by main religions.. Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
    25. ^ Kumar, Jayant. Census of India. 2001. September 4, 2006. http://www.censusindia.net/.

     

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